Final Review

Introduction to Phonetics, L306
R. Port, April 28, 2006

Our Final Exam is Wednesday, May 3, 1pm in BH 105
Text Materials:

Performance Skills : be able to produce and identify a range of vowel qualities, rounded and unrounded. Also produce voiced, unaspirated and aspirated version at any stop place of articulation. Do ejective stops and fricatives, implosive stops, prenasalized stops. Do fricatives at any named place of articulation. Also labial, dental and lateral clicks in unaspirated, aspirated and nasal forms. Do an apical trill.

Transcription: Be able to transcribe dialects of English using the basic IPA alphabet.

Speech anatomy: lips, tongue tip (apex), tongue blade, tongue dorsum, tongue root.  Mouth, nasal cavity, pharynx (nasal and oral),soft palate (velum), hard palate, alveolar ridge.
       Larynx vs. glottis, vocal folds, false vocal folds, trachea, epiglottis.

Basic symbol set of the IPA (International Phonetic Assoc.)

Places of Articulation - at two `levels of detail': Labial, Apical, Palatal, Velar, Glottal, OR bilabial, labiodental, dental, alveolar, retroflex, palato-alveolar, palatal, velar, uvular, pharyngeal, labiovelar, glottal (Ladef, Table 7.3, p. 147)

Manners of Articulation (Chapters 3, 7) : stop, nasal, approximant, fricative, trill, tap, flap, lateral vs. central.  What argument could you raise to claim that click is a Manner of Artic?  What argument could you raise to claim that a click is a Place of Artic?


Vowel dimensions: tongue height, tongue backness, lip rounding.  For English, how many V dimensions? Only 2? Or 3?  Or more?
Monophthongs vs diphthongs.  Which Vs in English are ambiguous on this property?
Secondary vowel articulations: nasalization, rhoticism (or retroflexion)
Stressed, unstressed; reduced vowels, full vowel; pitch accent.
Tense Vs, lax Vs; closed vs. open syllables (Which Eng Vs only occur in closed syllables? or before /r/ or /l/?)


Stops, fricatives (obstruents); Essential gestures: oral closure + nasal closure OR glottal closure
Stop variants: lateral release, glottal stop, flap (or tap), trill
Homorganic relationships, voicing pairs. What is coarticulation?
Air stream mechanisms: (pulmonic, glottalic, velaric) X (ingressive, egressive); Plosive, Ejective, Implosive, Click.
Voice-onset time: Continous, in fact, but across languages has 3 modes: prevoiced, short-lag (unaspirated), long-lag (aspirated). Eng vs. French VOT patterns.
Other `voicing' cues for English: vowel duration and obstruent duration for postvocalic obstruents.
Affricates vs. fricatives (note spelling!)
Breathy-voiced stops (voiced aspirates) (eg, in what languages?)
Glottal articulations:  [h] vs. voiceless vs. voiced (laryngealized voice, glottal fry, breathy voice, etc)

Port's `Continuous-Time English Speech Production Model'

        This primitive theory of phonetics (or phonology) is based on a set of `independent articulatory systems': lips, tongue tip, tongue body, velum, vocal folds. Each of these dimensions (or motor-control systems) is largely independent of the others, and has a small set of mutually exclusive values.  Eg, the lips can be open, rounded or closed, but can never be in two states at once. Each system changes state in continuous time in one or two dimensions. Plots of each articulatory system (reducing each to a single dimension) can be plotted against time (rather like a musical score). Be able to draw such plots for single words showing coarticulation, assimilation and certain timing details (eg, VOT, coordination of velum with other oral articulators, etc).

Properties of the IPA phonetic alphabet

Phonology: the use of segmental phonetic sounds for spelling morphemes in languages.  (But segments leave out much important information)
Prosody (other than timing)
ToBi Analysis (Tones and Break Indices). The most useful method for transcribing English prosody (and many other languages as well).  There are 3 types of tone: Pitch accents (H* peak, L* low, L*+H scoop, L+H* rising peak, H+!H downstep high), Phrasal tones (H-, L-) and final boundary tones (L%, H%).  Some common patterns are the ``Declarative phrase intonation'', List item intonation and Nuclear accent (a pitch accent near the end of an intonation phrase).
Acoustics of Speech
acoustic medium, wave motion, transverse vs. longitudinal wave
period, amplitude, wave velocity
additivity (superposition) property. Implications:
1) spectral representation - shows amplitude of sinusoidal
components in a complex waves
2) independence of sound sources in environment
3) filtering of selected frequencies
acoustic filter - multiplication of some amplitudes by number less than 1. The Transfer Function of a filter displays that
 multiplication for each frequency.

Acoustic Theory of Speech Production: Claims that observed acoustic signals of speech result from a sound Source (from the glottal
buzz or frication) filtered by a vocal Cavities (in front of the source).
OUTPUT = SOURCE function (modified by, ie, multiplied by) a FILTER function
Reading Spectrograms
    Cues for major classes: vowels, nasals, glides, stops.
     Vowels: Front Vs - F2 and F1 far apart.  Low: F1 low. 
    Place of articulation in stops and fricatives.  For VCV:
            Labials: F2 and F3 fall going in, rise coming out. Burst broad spectrum and weak
            Velars:  F2-F3 pinch going in and out.  Burst opposite F2 and F3, compact in spectrum, strong
             Apical:  F2 locus at 1800 Hz. Burst hi-freq (above 3500 Hz), strong
    Lateral - low F2, very high F3
              [w] - low F2, slightly lowered F3
              [r] - low F2 and very low F3 (below 2lHz)
      Nasals.   Weaker than Vs, stronger than voiced stop. Steady-state weak resonances in formant range.
                    Place cues in formants as for stops.
       Glottal stop - irregular pitch periods (alternately strong and weak).