Geoff Petty (
What is evidence-based teaching?
We need evidence-based practice, not custom and practice.
You need all the evidence to make sound decisions.
It is not enough to know what works, you need to know why.
You need to find critical success factors that fail in your teaching context and fix them.
You need to review your teaching constantly in the light of the evidence above.
Learning is making sense not just remembering.
How the brain learns.
Reasoning not reproduction helps meaning making
Reasoning encourages deep learning.
Structuring takes time: slow down, use peer instruction, RAT/RAP, give feedback, use constructivist methods.
Multiple perspectives and multiple representations (students need to look at the material more than once and more than one way).
The expectancy-value theory of motivation
A learner's motivation is determined by how much they value their goals and whether they expect to succeed.
Dweck: giving students a belief that they can make it.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Esteem needs: an audience of peers may motivate them more than the instructor can.
What methods work best?
Effect sizes: finding what works
Control group: taught with conventional methods
Experimental group: change one variable to study effect
Pre-test, post-test, compare the average marks
Quantitative analysis, standard deviation etc.
John Hattie's table of effect sizes
for Hattie @Univ of Auckland, New Zealand
Effect sizes allow us compare factors that affect achievement (e.g., teaching methods, teaching time, student motivation etc)
Synthesis of 500 meta-analyses leading to three principles.
Achievement enhanced by degree that students and teachers set and communicate appropriate, specific and challenging goals.
Achievement is enhanced as a function of feedback.
Increases in student learning involve a reconceptualization of learning.
Table of effect sizes, beware of comparing Hattie's with Marzano's (different process)
Marzano's theory-based meta-analysis categorizes teaching strategies depending on whether they activate in the student:
the meta-cognitive system
the cognitive system
Extracting general principles from effect-size studies
Isolating top teaching methods based on effect sizes summarized by Hattie and Marzano
The top teaching methods.
Feedback or 'assessment for learning' (effect size 0.81)
Whole-class interactive teaching (effect size 0.81)
A parable (p. 105)
Graphic organizers and other visual representations (effect size 1.2 to 1.3)
These help most the dyslexic and very right-brained learners especially.
Analogies, metaphors and similes come here too.
'Decisions, decisions' (effect size 0.89)
This is a series of highly adaptable learning games, sometimes called 'manipulatives'.
My interactive templates could be listed under this category (along with others, see paper)
Best if played in pairs or groups (cf. the parable on p. 105)
Very specific about what it is and what it isn't (see Michaelsen's scorecard).
Reciprocal teaching (effect size 0.86)
Everybody takes turns leading cycles of teaching and learning.
Seven principles for evidence-based teaching.
The seven general teaching principles and the PAR (Present-Apply-Review) model
Students must see the value of learning
Students must believe they can do it
Feedback and dialogue on progress towards the goal
Establish structure (and thus meaning) of information
Time and repetition
Teach skills as well as content
Choosing and using teaching methods.
Feedback through interactive dialogue: the self-correcting classroom
Why interactive dialogue works
Getting the culture right for a self-correcting classroom
Teaching methods for the 'orientation' phase: setting the scene
Methods for the orientation phase: preparing the learner
The vital first five minutes
Methods to present new material
Teaching without talking, snowballing questions etc.
Methods for the 'apply' phase: deep meaning from hard thinking
Student activity being used to promote learning
Questions to ask for devising activities for the apply phase
Feedback methods: assessment for learning
Methods for the 'review' and 'homework phases'
Teaching thinking skills and intelligence
The content trap: most people teach content, they ignore thinking skills.
Review of evidence that ability is learned not inherited (so it should be taught!)
What do the best teachers, schools and colleges do?
Expert teachers set challenging goals
Expert teachers have deep understanding of teaching and learning
Expert teachers monitor learning and provide feedback
Your own evidence: reflection and experimentation
The power of reflective practice
Theory in use: collect feedback on your teaching (CATs, etc.)
The rational curriculum.
Creativity and problem-solving
Our crazy curriculum
Management and leadership.
The strategic evidence-based approach vs. custom and practice
Course management: keeping a learner's focus